All cells descend from pre-existing cells through cellular division. In the life cycle of asexually-reproducing organisms, a process called "mitosis" produces diploid cells with two copies of each chromosome. Cells exhibit dramatic changes in state of chromatin coiling, nuclear membranes, centrioles, and nucleoli during mitosis. Mitosis is a continuous process. In prophase, chromosomes become visible, a spindle forms, the nuclear envelope and nucleoli disappear, and centriole pairs move to opposite sides of the cell. Chromosomes are pushed and pulled by microtubules into equatorial alignment during metaphase. In anaphase, sister chromatids separate at the centromere. The new chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell. Chromosomes arrive and opposite poles and uncoil. The spindle disintegrates, nuclear envelopes reform, and nucleoli reappear in telophase. Cytokinesis divides cytoplasm after mitosis.
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